Biogas is produced using organic material, which is broken down with the help of bacteria in an anaerobic (oxygen-free) environment. It’s primarily methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), and siloxanes.
It is produced through the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, a process which is referred to as anaerobic digestion.
Biogas is made in a digester. It is often produced from animal and agricultural wastes. It can displace greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cattle manure that is currently dumped in farm slurry tanks.
Biogas is uniquely a clean and renewable fuel that you can make yourself. Biogas is considered to be a renewable resource because its production-and-use cycle is continuous, and it generates no net carbon dioxide. The majority of it will be produced by the first digestion tank with a lower gas yield being attained in the secondary digestate storage tank.
In Germany, a new market study by ecoprog concluded that 2,600 MW of new AD plants will be constructed by 2025 and that Europe will remain the most important market for new biogas plants. However, for uses that require the gas to be used in internal combustion engines, boilers or fuel cells, the biogas will probably need to be pretreated (to become biomethane) in order to remove corrosive or dangerous contaminants.
There are many uses which don’t require much more than for example, bubbling the raw it is through a water bath and reducing the water vapour. Straight from the digester, it is will generally be saturated with vapor.
Some experts believe it is will have limited use worldwide, with more potential in hydrogen fuel cells or electric motors. However, in our opinion such views are being proven more wrong with every month that passes, as AD plants spring up in ever-increasing numbers and in so many locations globally. In fact, it is has the potential to replace a large part of fossil fuel consumption.
The range of it is digester feedstocks is ever-expanding, as new research finds ways to improve their digestion speed and erfficiency. may innovtions are beign successfully applied. Chicken litter can now be used as a feedstock for AD plants, whereas until very recently the high ammonia present in spent chicken litter was holding back the use of this abundant waste material in digesters.
The methane mixture in the gas may be applied in direct combustion systems for producing space heating, water heating, drying, absorption cooling and steam production, to name justa few. However, it is also worthwhile in countries such as Switzerland, Germany, and Sweden, for the methane in to be compressed. Then, for it to be used as a vehicle transportation fuel or input directly into the gas mains. Biogas may be used locally for energy purposes by coupling the generated fuel with it in a combusting unit or, after purification, it may be introduced to the gas network, transmitted and then used for energy supply purposes.
Outside the UK in other countries, in cases where the primary purpose of the digester is to control odor or generate carbon credits, all of the it may be simply flared. But it is more environmentally sustainable to use the biomethane for its in-built energy, wherever possible, and to avoid recourse to flaring.
Biogas can be cleaned and upgraded to natural gas standards, when it becomes biomethane. It can also be compressed, the same way as natural gas is compressed to CNG, and used to power motor vehicles. It can also be collected by drilling wells into the waste and extracting it as it is formed.
Biogas can be used for all applications designed for natural gas, given a certain upgrading of its quality. The production of it is can make residue streams of value and may provide economic opportunities for the agricultural and forestry sector in rural areas. It can be a significant employer for local people at many levels of training and qualifications.
Biogas has been encouraged as a great way to cut greenhouse gas emissions in both the power and heating systems. Biogas has been used in household and farm-scale applications for many years. Compared with other biomass-based vehicle fuels available so far, it is can have several advantages from an environmental and resource-efficiency perspective.
In Europe and worldwide production and use of biogas has increased considerably as a result of increasing demand for renewable energy as a substitute for fossil energy. Nevertheless, it has been used in household and farm-scale applications for many years.
Among the fuels from vegetal biomass, biogas has a great importance and can successfully replace fossil fuels for obtaining electricity and heat. In the last 5 years the many advantages in the use of biogas in the field of transport have been realised and a significant number of AD plants now supply a form of compressed natural gas (CNG) for use in transport fleets.